Monday, October 23, 2017

Underdeveloped Thoughts: The Amorality of Art

I notice that people tend to attribute a morality to concepts. We feel that things like nature, democracy, sports, and art are in some way moral on their own. In fact they are moral vacuums. As a result we ascribe our own personal morality to them. Some believe that nature is governed by a fuzzy harmony uncorrupted by greed while adorable animals murder the young of their competition. Many believe that democracy is a shining light in the darkness of human oppression while oppressive tyrants get elected around the world.


The belief that concepts are inherently moral allows us to ascribe our individual or tribal values to them. We see this in sports in the United States, onto which many have imposed a post-World War II military ethic. Many say that sports are supposed to be apolitical, but in a way that reinforces the status quo. That is only one way to look at it though. People can give political, religious, or frankly, commercial meaning to sports. It doesn’t have to be one-way.


This applies to art as well. People talk about art being a force for good. But, art can also be a force for evil, a force for beauty, or a force for money. It is just a force. It is up to the artist, the critic, or the art consumer to decide how to use that force. Most people wouldn’t find an engineer to be shirking their moral obligations if they are designing luxury automobiles rather than finding ways to deliver safe water to people.

Artists should be lauded for using their work to stand up for what they believe and to affect change in the world. We need this work. However, I don’t believe artists should receive any greater criticism for focusing on whatever subject matter that they choose. Pressuring artists to be political, especially catering to a specific ideology is not productive. We all have a responsibility to be the best we can be; it’s not something that people can pass on to artists.

Note: This was written by a painter whose work currently consists of non-activist landscapes.

Saturday, June 10, 2017

Fun with Provenance, Part 1

Provenance (n) 2: the history of ownership of a valued object or work of art or literature - merriam-webster.com 

My first exposure to the importance of knowing an object’s provenance was in my early twenties when I worked my way into the antiques department of a department store. We used it primarily to legitimize the objects we were selling, therefore increasing value. Such legitimacy was occasionally harmed when a co-worker would offer to “check the providence” for them. 

Horace Pippin
Photo: museumsyndicate.com
My undergraduate art history classes didn’t touch on the concept very much either. Perhaps it was treated as a vocabulary word; something of which to be aware. But, beyond the very basic college studies, provenance is critical to academic research and can be even be important in identifying war crimes. The primary reason I find it to be fun is that it gives each work of art its own narrative. The artist births the artwork and sends it out into the world to have a life of its own.

Clifford Odets
Photo: Wikipedia
This is why I’m appreciative of museums providing provenance on their gallery pages. I was clicking around on the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston website and came across Horace Pippin’s Country Doctor (Night Call) (1935). After being struck by the painting, I read the provenance and noticed that the piece was at one point given to the playwright Clifford Odets by the family of Dr. Morris Leof. Well who was Dr. Morris Leof? Who was the gallerist who represented Pippin who was not exactly a main stream artist at that time?


These questions led me down a rabbit hole of research which I will share over the next few weeks as I explore the life of the painting Country Doctor (Night Call).

Monday, January 30, 2017

Here, Look at This

My job title at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum was Gallery Guide. This means that I was a security guard who wears a button that says “Let’s Talk Art” accompanied by a working knowledge of the artwork on display. One of the reasons I found my position rewarding is because I had the opportunity to spend many hours over the course of months with exhibitions and the individual works of art that make them up. I also got to observe and speak with visitors viewing the art. Thousands of them.

And not all of these visitors were happy. The Guggenheim has a good collection of early twentieth century modernist paintings. These paintings are what many people who visit the museum want to see. However, a very small selection of this collection is on view at any given time, often occupying just one or two galleries away from the main rotunda for which the museum is known. Large temporary exhibitions generally dominate the exhibition space, often featuring artists about whom the general public is unaware.

This arrangement presents an opportunity for visitors to be exposed to a new artist or even a whole new era of artwork. It is exhilarating to meet people who meet this opportunity with enthusiasm.

“This is a great show! I’ve never heard of this artist before. I need to learn more about them!”
“So much fun!”
“So beautiful.”

However some people shut down when they realize that their favorite artist is not on display. They complain to anyone who will listen, generally a gallery guide about their shattered expectations.

“You have 150 Kandinskys. Why don’t you show them all?”
“This isn’t art,” pointing at an abstract painting by Moholy-Nagy. “That is art,” gesturing at a Camille Pissarro Impressionist painting, “the Renaissance!”
“The American museum is no more.”

Last year the Guggenheim mounted an exhibition of contemporary Middle Eastern and North African art entitled, “But a Storm is Blowing from Paradise.” Some people expressed disappointment that we dedicated three galleries to artwork untried by time and art history. They felt that they had wasted their time and money coming to the museum to see the combination of this show and the extensive and critically acclaimed Moholy-Nagy retrospective. Perhaps they did. But I would argue that it was not the fault of the museum, but because these visitors chose not to take the opportunity to think critically about the work that was on display.

Upon a casual and somewhat cynical viewing, Mohammed Kazem’s Scratches on Paper (2014), featured in “But a Storm is Blowing from Paradise” is simply a huge blank piece of paper stuck to a wall. Many angry visitors see only this. Their faces curled upwards into a snarl of disgust, or they gave a single sharp mocking laugh. They gestured with their palms upward in violent circles or pose for photos in mock contemplation, their arms crossed and chins pinched between their thumb and forefingers.

If a visitor takes a moment to look at the artwork, they can see that while it’s about eight feet tall and four feet wide, it is a scroll, rolled up from the floor at the bottom of the piece implying a substantial length. Warm light rakes across the surface making it stand out in contrast to the cooler ambient light flooding the gallery. This glow reveals a subtle texture to the paper. Its surface is a sea of tiny bumps with channels between them suggesting that perhaps this effect was created and not simply part of the paper making process. The edges of the paper are deckled, creating an edge at once soft and jagged. The paper seems to fade away at its borders. Once the viewer gets close enough to see these details they are fully immersed in the work because of the scale of the piece. One’s entire vision is occupied by this monochrome landscape, each feature roughly the same size as the next and the thousands all around.

On top of this, one can read the wall text next to the work to discover that it was created through the intense physical effort of scratching the three meter piece of paper with a pair of household scissors thousands and thousands of times. It is intended as a physical record of the sound resulting from the creation process. I suggested to curious visitors that it is “the artifact of an action.” Also, I’d mention that the word scratch calls to mind the physical scratches manifested on the paper, but can also describe the sound that the action of scratching makes. It is related by inspiration to several movements of art throughout the twentieth century.

Scratches on Paper, Mohammed Kazem, 2014
Photo: Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum

Some visitors were impressed by the effort that went into the piece. Others liked the optical effect of the waves. A few were interested in the concept, particularly people willing to throw around words like “indexical.” And many walked away unimpressed. But these people put effort into their experience at the museum that day and I believe they had a more satisfying visit than those who immediately dismissed the entire exhibit because they are determined that they “don’t understand” or “hate” contemporary art. 

I can relate to cynical viewers. I began my addiction to visual art in my late teens, but did not formally study until I was in my mid-thirties. As a self-directed young student of painting and art history, I limited my experience to art with which I immediately connected. I also developed the unfortunately popular ideology that if an artwork doesn’t immediately connect emotionally with its audience, then the artist has not done their job. I was confused by artwork which didn’t fit the criteria of a traditional art object. I was frustrated by work accompanied by a wall full of curator-speak. It seemed to me someone was simply trying to justify the work. I would also skip entire swaths museums because the work didn’t fit into what I saw as my favorite artwork. I walked right past most prewar American art, French Academic Art, British Portraiture.

In my thirties, I went back to college to study art history and decided to take classes in styles of art that had never appealed to me, or whose history I was simply unaware. In my spare time I read books and articles on contemporary art to try to understand the confusing developments since the 1960’s. The result is that I now have a much better time at museums and in galleries. Art, which had always been my focus was now a richer world for me. I don’t like everything, but I’ve learned not to dismiss anything.

Now, I’m not suggesting that you drop everything and spend all of your time studying art. From a practical point of view, it is a terrible idea. What I am suggesting is that you actively decide whether you like something or find it interesting at some level. I’m not blown away by the concept of Kazem’s Scratches on Paper but I do find it visually attractive. You don’t have to, and you’re really not supposed to love everything you see in a museum.

Imagine that you are at your local bar or cafĂ©. There is someone there that you don’t know, but who clearly knows the owner of the establishment, instilling in you a modicum of trust. This person approaches you and says, “Here, look at this,” and presents you with an object. What would you do? First, you would examine the object. Maybe it is immediately recognizable, maybe not. It’s something you find beautiful, ugly, confusing, intriguing or uninteresting. But, regardless of the initial assessment, I think one’s natural response would be to ask, “What is this?” or “Why are you showing this to me?” And the person who is sharing the object would explain. Maybe this would increase your understanding or appreciation of the object, but it would definitely explain why they shared it with you. Because you gave the presenter the benefit of the doubt, you could make an informed opinion of the object.
“It’s gorgeous.”
“It’s disgusting.”
“At first, I was wondering why you were showing me this, but it’s actually really interesting.”

I think that if people were to give curators the benefit of the doubt in this way when they enter an exhibition, they would have a more rewarding experience than if they simply refused to look at the work being presented. Just the act of taking this brief journey into critical thinking is rewarding. Even if you decide that you hate that piece of art, you have had a more valuable experience than if you dismissed everything that you see because it’s “too modern”, “too weird” or “boring.”


Monday, September 26, 2016

Slick and Dirty

Dan Schein
Where Do We Dump the Bodies
Through October 8

Installation View
Photo: Mike Weiss Gallery
Dan Schein’s heroically sized canvases feature hill people and swamp people set in
“abysmal landscapes” of sickly grey, green and brown paint. The (largely pinkish Caucasian) figures have the feeling of allegorical characters populating a terrible world of tremendous anxiety. Each painting seems to tell part of the story of a rural hell. What if Max Beckmann had grown up in the world on which Deliverance was based?

Upon entering the gallery I was greeted by Schein’s Seer of Things, 2016. A horrified elderly figure stares agape in profile off the edge of the picture plane, and by way of installation at the world which the rest of the paintings create inside of the gallery. The figure stands before a bleak mountain landscape topped by a mysterious tower, in the manner of a renaissance portrait gone psychologically awry.

Schein’s Raft, 2016 is the antithesis of Copley’s Watson and the Shark, 1778. It depicts two men on a small raft beset by a shark. One man is naked, exposed to the extreme elements, paddling furiously (but to where?). He is clearly terrified of the second man whose face is obscured by blood lust, about to bludgeon his shipmate to death with a club. There is nowhere to escape, yet the victim still paddles against his certain horrible demise.

Dan Schein’s “abysmal” wasteland is not so removed from parts of the country that we can separate ourselves entirely from it. It serves as a reminder that the apocalypse may already be here.


Alex Couwenberg
Left at 69’s
Through October 8

When I walked by Lyons Wier, upon first glance I thought they were having an exhibition of ribbon candy. But I was happy I stopped to look more closely at the work of Alex Couwenberg. In each painting, the artist seems to choose the aesthetics of vintage advertising and sports car detailing, using them to create architectural constructions intricate and interesting enough to get pleasantly lost. Couwenberg uses paint in a variety of manners, creating a varied surface texture as well as an authentic feeling sense of space. If there is a hint of science fiction in the look and feel of the paintings, it is a future of hope. This is particularly compelling for me, having recently enjoyed the Guggenheim’s Moholy-Nagy retrospective.


Alex Couwenberg
Disco Doll, 2016
Photo: Lyons Wier Gallery

Tuesday, January 19, 2016

Seurat and Steve McQueen

Recently, while giving a talk about a Seurat painting I was confronted with an interesting problem: how does one make people fully appreciate that an artwork from the somewhat distant past is ground breaking? One can tell them, or make them memorize it in art history class, but it’s hard to feel the drama of revolution when something has become a trope or so well known that it’s become part of everyday life. It’s difficult to recognize the avant-garde when it’s seen reproduced on cubicle walls in offices everywhere.
Paysannes au Travail, Georges Seurat (1882-83)
Photo: www.guggenheim.org

The best answer to this question is to put the work into context. This is easy when speaking with people who have a familiarity with the subject matter. It’s a lengthy proposition when speaking with people who are unfamiliar with the various movements or art history. Because of this, I’ve come up with an analogy I like: the car chase from Bullitt.

Bullitt (1968)
Photo: www.telegraph.co.uk
When I was a teenager, my father told me about the legendary car chase from the movie “Bullitt” (1968) starring Steve McQueen. I was prepared to have my mind blown. And, it is a great scene; cool car, Steve McQueen performing amazing stunts on the hills of San Francisco. It is absolutely iconic. But, I felt that I’d seen it all before. And I had. Ever since Bullitt, the elements of that movie have become conventions used by dozens (at least) of movies and television shows. But the people who saw that movie in 1968 must have been blown away.

In the same way, it’s difficult to convince people that an impressionist or post-impressionist painting was considered radical because most people have grown up seeing these paintings as posters on dorm room wall, as gift shop calendars or refrigerator magnet souvenirs from a favorite museum. So, I’ll keep trying to find the best way to solve this problem. In the meantime, I’ll continue giving the nod to that classic cop movie and maybe make people appreciate it more as well.





Friday, January 15, 2016

Museum Memberships on the Cheap

If you are a regular reader of this online record of my enthusiasms, you know that I enjoy deeply my museum memberships. One of my favorite parts of being in New York City is the access to some of the top cultural institutions in the world, and having memberships to those institutions means that I can drop in for a visit anytime I want. But perpetually on the cusp of being a starving artist, I look for the deals and luckily there are plenty.

I suppose the least expensive way to go is “pay what you want” nights. During these events, you can give however little your conscience allows. There are plenty of moral arguments for artists or really any other of the city’s non-rich community to pay very little. Several of the local museums offer these opportunities. I stick with my quest to acquire actual memberships on the cheap though, because I dislike viewing art in a huge crowd. Museums often offer member nights, where members have the run of the galleries without all the tourists.Also, I have a guilty conscience. 

I’ve already shouted the virtues of the NYC ID from the rooftops, so I won’t get too much into it. Just think, “Tons of free memberships for a year.” Not for privacy/conspiracy theory enthusiasts.

This past week, I was made aware of artist memberships. The Museum of Modern Art had an open house for their artist member program this past Wednesday and for $35 and proof of artistry, (in my case, a postcard displaying work and listing my website) I have base level member privileges at MoMA including the ability to buy one $5 guest pass per visit. The New Museum on Bowery also has an artist membership program for $50 (with your resume). The Whitney also offers a $50 artist membership which I wish I'd known about last year. Benefits include some nice bonuses from which you may choose. I opted for the "education" option which gave me access to lectures and gallery talks. Even paying $85 last year for a base level, non-artist membership, I found it to be a solid value.

If you are an artist, and not so anti-establishment that you still enjoy museums, then I recommend looking into artist memberships at your local institutions. If you can not prove that you are an artist, I still encourage you to look for deals at your local museums. They are out there for the taking.



Tuesday, January 12, 2016

The Need to Demystify Art

When I first went back to college to finish my degree a few years ago, I started in the architecture program. I decided after a year that architecture was far more interesting than I had imagined and also that I did not want to be an architect. One thing I found frustrating about the world of architecture though, was the dense, jargon filled language used to discuss concepts. I felt vindicated in my opinion when I read Allison Arieff’s opinion article, “Why Don’t We Read About Architecture” in the New York Times in 2012.

I feel the same way about a lot of art writing I encounter, whether in academic articles, artists’ mission statements or gallery press releases. I’m not against academic writing. I find it fun to pore through a dense but well written article which communicates an idea effectively. But I feel there needs to be a greater effort to connect modern and contemporary art with the public at large.  It’s discouraging to me when people say “I don’t know…it’s just too modern for me” about a 100 year old painting. After all, modern art was supposed to take art down from the proverbial ivory tower.

I understand the importance of connecting with an academic and critical audience when writing about art, but more casual art fans and potential art fans need to be brought into the fold. There needs to be more writing for the uninitiated in addition to writing for professionals. When people don’t understand something and then it’s explained in a way intended for topic experts, they feel unintelligent or worse, duped. This is one reason why it’s so easy for public funding to be pulled for the arts: people feel angry when something they don’t understand is deemed important. 


I’m starting a new job at the end of the month as a Gallery Guide at the Guggenheim Museum here in New York. It’s an opportunity to address people directly who walk by a piece of contemporary art and say, “I don’t get it. Why is this so great?” I see it as an important mission in this new job and in my life in general to try to demystify the artworks that I love so much. This will allow individuals to have a more enriching experience while viewing art, and it will also help the cause of making fine art more of a part of contemporary American culture.